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Keywords to Understand China
Keywords are one of the best ways to understand a country. In China, with the rapid development in different areas, the keywords keep changing. ChinAfrica presents a selection of prevailing keywords to help readers understand China better.
ChinAfrica | VOL.11 September ·2019-09-05

The Bund in Shanghai (XINHUA)

The Two Centennial Goals

The Two Centennial Goals were portrayed at the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), which unveiled a roadmap for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society and accelerating socialist modernization. Specifically, the first goal calls for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society, and doubling China's 2010 GDP and per-capita income, by the time the CPC celebrates its centenary in 2021; the second goal calls for building China into a modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious and beautiful, by the time the People's Republic celebrates its centenary in 2049. Ambitious on a national level, these goals also reflect the wishes and expectations of individuals, families and communities. They embody the grand vision and ideals the Chinese Dream represents, and their realization paves the way for making the Chinese Dream a reality. It is however a tall order to achieve these goals for a country like China with a population of more than 1.3 billion and uneven levels of development across regions. Sustained long-term efforts are needed, with an unswerving focus on economic development. The period between the 19th and the 20th National Congresses of the CPC is the period in which the timeframes of the Two Centennial Goals converge. In this period, not only must China complete the building of a moderately prosperous society in all respects and achieve the first centennial goal, it must also build on this achievement to embark on a new journey toward the second centennial goal of building a modern socialist country in every dimension.

Strategy for Invigorating China Through Science and Education

The strategy for invigorating China through science and education was unveiled by the CPC Central Committee and the State Council at the National Conference on Science and Technology in May 1995. It has been enriched with the infusion of new insights contained in a series of policies rolled out in the past 20 years, including the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) and Vision 2010. It is highlighted in the report to the 19th CPC National Congress as one of the seven strategies for completing the building of a moderately prosperous society, and incorporates new directives that respond to today's new challenges. The strategy for invigorating China through science and education is guided by the thinking that science and technology is a primary source of productivity growth. It emphasizes the importance of education and science and technology in promoting economic and social development, and the need for strengthened capacity building in science and technology and for expanded application of science and technology to productivity growth, so as to increase the contribution of science and technology to the economy. The strategy also aims to raise public awareness and understanding of science and technology, as part of the effort to increase the reliance of economic development on science and technology and to promote human development, a move that helps accelerate China's march toward greater prosperity.

This strategy relies on education. The key to its successful implementation is the development of science and technology. To ensure that science and technology plays its due role in economic development, it is essential to promote the development of education and science and technology.

Strategy to Make China a Talent-Strong Country

A national plan of action to develop a quality workforce (2002-05) was launched by the CPC Central Committee in May 2002. Talent development was included in the Party Constitution and the report to the 17th National Congress in 2007 as one of the three basic strategies. It was also incorporated in the report to the 19th National Congress in 2017 as one of the seven strategies for completing the process of building a moderately prosperous society.

Talent development and the development of education and science and technology are inseparable and mutually reinforcing. Our talent strategy focuses on the need to expand our talent pool and better use talent to advance toward our goal of building a prosperous country. In his report to the 19th CPC National Congress, Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, emphasized the Party's leadership role in talent development, and the need to attract talent from far and near and to make China a talent-strong country.

It is important to have in place a more proactive, open, and effective talent policy that guides talent identification, recruitment and retention, and encourages bold moves and competitive measures to welcome much needed experts in various fields into our team from both within and without the Party and from both within and without the country. It is also important to encourage skilled personnel to work in small communities, remote areas, border regions with mainly ethnic minority populations, and old revolutionary base areas. A favorable talent development culture is needed to inspire everyone to discover and develop his or her own talent and to realize his or her full potential, so that together we will unleash our collective creativity.

As part of our national development strategy, our talent development strategy is fully in line with national strategic development goals and by ensuring talent supply, supports efforts to complete the building of a moderately prosperous society and realize our dream of national rejuvenation.

The Innovation-Driven Development Strategy

In November 2012, at its 18th National Congress, the CPC made a series of important decisions on the implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy. As innovation has always offered important impetus to the progress of a country and a nation, an innovation-driven development strategy has a significant bearing on the future of the Chinese nation.

China is a large developing country which is pushing to transform its development model and economic structure, and therefore it must make sure that the innovation-driven development strategy is implemented properly and successfully. For this purpose, the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-20) contains extensive measures for its implementation, and the CPC Central Committee and the State Council issued in May 2016 Outlines on National Strategy for Innovation Driven Development. China's innovation-driven development

strategy aims at encouraging innovation in all areas, led by scientific and technological innovation. Innovation should be demand-driven in response to the needs of industrialization, and businesses are major players in delivering innovation. The market should play the decisive role in allocating resources, and the full potential of our socialist system should be tapped. The strategy also seeks to enhance the contribution of scientific and technological advances to economic growth, which will serve as a new growth driver and help sustain sound economic development.

As we implement the innovation-driven development strategy, we must open our minds and accelerate the reform of the science and technology system so that we can free ourselves from the stereotyped thinking and institutional barriers that hinder innovation-driven development. The strategy must be implemented in a systematic manner involving efforts in different areas. The main measures to be taken to this end include creating a favorable environment for fair competition with a market-based mechanism that encourages technological innovation. It is also essential to promote financial innovation to provide more incentives for innovative uses of technology.

Another area of focus is building a more efficient scientific research system, and implementing an effective talent management mechanism for training and attracting competent personnel. A highly-integrated approach is necessary to ensure an open and innovation-friendly climate. China seeks to have in place by 2020 an institutional, legal and policy framework for innovation-driven development so as to provide a solid basis to put China on track to become one of the world's most innovative countries.

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